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Posts Tagged ‘carbon dioxide’

Drought Causes Amazon Rainforest Trees to ‘Inhale’ Less Carbon from the Atmosphere

March 6, 2015 Comments off

scienceworldreport.com

For the first time ever, scientists have discovered direct evidence of the rate at which individual trees in the Amazon rainforest “inhale” carbon from the atmosphere during a severe drought. (Photo : Flickr/Mark Goble)

For the first time ever, scientists have discovered direct evidence of the rate at which individual trees in the Amazon rainforest “inhale” carbon from the atmosphere during a severe drought. The findings could be huge when it comes to calculating how much these forests contribute to carbon capture and storage in the future.

Scientists have long suspected that drought influences how much carbon trees manage to capture and store. The extent of that influence has long remained a mystery-until now. Scientists measured the growth and photosynthesis rates of trees at 13 rainforest plots across Brazil, Peru and Bolivia, comparing plots that were affected by the strong drought of 2010 with unaffected plots.

Each of the plots contained between 400 to 500 trees. In addition, the rainforest plots that were chosen were

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Arctic Soil Releases Dangerous Levels of CO2, Speeding Global Warming

February 12, 2013 Comments off

scienceworldreport.com

Arctic

(Photo : Reuters) Global warming has caused scientists to worry as permafrost melts, releasing a vast amount of CO2 into the atmosphere and further perpetuating the problem.

For most of the year, the Arctic is frozen: its hard-packed tundra and ice forming solid ground. In fact, some of that ice never melts in what is known as permafrost, which stays solid all year. Now, global warming has caused scientists to worry as permafrost melts, releasing a vast amount of CO2 into the atmosphere and further perpetuating the problem.

Flooding triggered by melting snow washes vast amounts of carbon-rich soil from the land into the water. These waters contain most of the carbon that is currently being released from melting permafrost. Permafrost itself contains years of collected organic matter and when it collapses, it exposes new layers of soil to sunlight. Once this carbon is exposed, it is then oxidized by bacteria and produces CO2. In fact, scientists estimate that carbon from Read more…

Summer drought limits the positive effects of CO2 and heat on plant growth in future climate

August 23, 2011 Comments off

physorg.com

This image was created with data acquired by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, AIRS, during July 2008. The image shows large scale patterns of carbon dioxide concentrations that are transported around the Earth by the general circulation of the atmosphere

 

In contrast to the increased growth in plants that scientists have often seen in studies with elevated CO2, the first synthesis paper on the comprehensive CLIMAITE project shows that the combination of summer drought and potential plant growth-promoting factors such as higher temperatures and increased CO2 together limit the effect of CO2 increased plant growth significantly.

“When you’ve previously seen a significantly higher plant growth at elevated CO2 concentrations, it is typically because it has been controlled studies, where only the was changed. We fundamentally had the theory that you have to look at the combination of the different variables, since the plants in the future will be exposed to multiple changes simultaneously, “explains Klaus Steenberg Larsen, who is a researcher in the Biosystems Division at Risø DTU and lead author on the scientific paper.

CLIMAITE is a Danish research center that investigates how climate change, as they probably appear in 2075, affects Read more…

New NASA Data Blow Gaping Hole In Global Warming Alarmism

July 29, 2011 2 comments

forbes

By JAMES TAYLOR
This NASA handout Terra satellite image obtain...Image by AFP/Getty Images via @daylife

NASA satellite data from the years 2000 through 2011 show the Earth’s atmosphere is allowing far more heat to be released into space than alarmist computer models have predicted, reports a new study in the peer-reviewed science journal Remote Sensing. The study indicates far less future global warming will occur than United Nations computer models have predicted, and supports prior studies indicating increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide trap far less heat than alarmists have claimed.

Study co-author Dr. Roy Spencer, a principal research scientist at the University of Alabama in Huntsville and U.S. Science Team Leader for the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer flying on NASA’s Aqua satellite, reports that real-world data from NASA’s Terra satellite contradict Read more…

World’s Oceans In ‘Shocking’ Decline

June 21, 2011 Comments off

bbc

Coral and fishThe oceans are in a worse state than previously suspected, according to an expert panel of scientists.

In a new report, they warn that ocean life is “at high risk of entering a phase of extinction of marine species unprecedented in human history”.

They conclude that issues such as over-fishing, pollution and climate change are acting together in ways that have not previously been recognised.

The impacts, they say, are already affecting humanity.

The panel was convened by the International Programme on the State of the Ocean (IPSO), and brought together experts from different disciplines, including coral reef ecologists, toxicologists, and fisheries scientists.

Its report will be formally released later this week.

“The findings are shocking,” said Alex Rogers, IPSO’s scientific director and professor of conservation biology at Oxford University.

“As we considered the cumulative effect of what humankind does to the oceans, the implications became far worse than we had individually realised.

“We’ve sat in one forum and spoken to Read more…

Record-High CO2 Levels a Bad Sign for Global Climate Goals

June 1, 2011 Comments off

greenbiz

Record-High CO2 Levels a Bad Sign for Global Climate Goals

Record levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions last year threaten our chances of keeping the Earth’s temperature from rising 2 degrees Celsius, considered by scientists to be the threshold for catastrophic climate change.

CO2 emissions from energy production in 2010 were the highest in history following a recessionary dip the year before, the International Energy Agency (IEA) said in a stark announcement Monday. Existing and planned power plants mean the bulk of energy-related CO2 emissions projected for 2020 are already “locked in.”

“This significant increase in CO2 emissions and the locking in of future emissions due to infrastructure investments represent a serious setback to our hopes of limiting the global rise in temperature to Read more…

Magma Proves Undersea Volcanoes Do Explode

April 3, 2011 Comments off

ouramazingplanet

Deep-sea volcanoes can explode instead of just oozing, scientists now confirm.

The new proof — higher-than-expected levels of carbon dioxide in the magma from a volcano off the coast of Oregon —suggests the volcanoes may play a greater role in global climate than thought.

Of all the volcanic activity on Earth, 75 to 80 percent of it takes place at deep-sea ridges in the middle of the oceans. Most of these volcanoes apparently spew out huge volumes of lava instead of erupting explosively, as many volcanoes on land do.

It is a high level of gas trapped in a volcano’s magma that normally fuels explosive volcanic bursts. This level has long been thought to be low at mid-ocean ridges; moreover, potential undersea explosions would be suppressed by the crushing pressure from the surrounding water.

However, based on volcanic ash found at certain sites, geologists have speculated over the last decade that explosive eruptions do take place in deep-sea volcanoes. Now researchers say they have proof.

Juan de Fuca ridge schematic, mapThe Juan de Fuca ridge lies between the separating Pacific and Juan de Fuca tectonic plates. Credit: USGS 

A team of scientists used ion beams to analyze the composition of materials recovered from ash deposits on Axial Volcano, on the Juan de Fuca Ridge off the coast of Oregon. Trapped within crystals from the deposits were droplets of magma containing very high levels of carbon dioxide. These droplets revealed that the magma was indeed rich in gas, at concentrations high enough to generate bubbles in the molten rock for explosive underwater eruptions.

“Direct evidence for high carbon dioxide concentrations in a mid-ocean-ridge volcano was unexpected and surprising,” researcher Christoph Helo, a volcanologist at McGill University in Montreal, told OurAmazingPlanet.

These findings suggest the amount of the global-warming gas carbon dioxide that is released from the deeper mantle into the Earth’s atmosphere at mid-ocean ridges falls within the higher end of past estimates, nearly 10 times more than the lowest end. That could have key implications for climate change.

Still, Helo said, volcanic carbon dioxide, unlike man-made emissions, “is not a variable that has undergone drastic changes within the past century.”

The scientists detailed their findings online March 13 in the journal Nature Geoscience.